I hate how biased all the information out there is in the political field esp. if you are only just now getting interested in it so I'm going to share a truly non biased and simple explanation of it for any beginners out there.
First Up, the two major political parties:
I tried looking up both parties platforms but the wording was long and at times a bit confusing so here is a very basic run down for them to the best of my understanding.
Democrats generally support more and bigger government programs to solve the nations problems. They are pro abortion, pro gay marriage, and are basically more liberal or progressive on most social issues. They are also for solving international issues through peace talks, treaties, and most any other method other than war unless absolutely no other option remains.
Republicans generally support smaller and fewer government programs believing that private parties and healthy capitalism can solve most of the nations problems when given the right support and opportunity. They are pro life, pro traditional marriage and basically more conservative or traditional on most social issues. They are also for solving international issues through peaceful means first but believe that some types of groups shouldn't be negotiated with and that a strong military greatly deters hostile enemies from attacking us aggressively.
There is no right or wrong when it comes to choosing a party only choosing which best speaks for you. Although I personally lean a bit more to one party I am pro certain things from both and con from both as well. I truly believe that both have a lot to give to our nation and that each one helps balance the other, too much of one leads to real problems but working together makes for a stronger, better nation.
One side note: regardless of affiliation we should always remember that this country is ans was founded upon a government of "We the People", we own this country, politicians are our elected employees and should represent our needs and desires above their own. If they don't we should kick them out. Each and every vote really does matter and we should take advantage of this great right that we can exercise in this wonderful country of ours. To pull from the HBO show "Newsroom" Our country is no longer the greatest but it can be if we all do our part and speak up for the things that matter to us.